Oil & Gas - Exploration & Production
(E&P) companies explore for, extract, or produce energy products such as crude oil and natural gas, which comprise the upstream operations of the oil and gas value chain. Companies in the industry develop conventional and unconventional oil and gas reserves; these include, but are not limited to, shale oil and/or gas reserves, oil sands, and gas hydrates. Activities covered by this standard include the development of both on-shore and off-shore reserves. The E&P industry creates contracts with the industry to conduct several E&P activities and to obtain equipment and oilfield services.
Oil & Gas - Midstream
The industry consists of companies involved in the transportation or storage of natural gas, crude oil, and refined petroleum products. Midstream natural gas activities involve gathering, transport, and processing of natural gas from the wellhead, as well as the removal of impurities, production of natural gas liquids, storage, pipeline transport, and shipping, liquefaction, or regasification of liquefied natural gas. Midstream oil activities mainly involve transport of crude oil and refined products over land, using a network of pipes and pumping stations, as well as trucks and rail cars, and over seas and rivers via tanker ships or barges. Companies that operate bulk stations and terminals, as well as those that manufacture and install storage tanks and pipelines, are also part of this industry.
Oil & Gas - Refining & Marketing
(R&M) companies refine petroleum products, market oil and gas products, and/ or operate gas stations and convenience stores, all of which comprise the downstream operations of the oil and gas value chain. The types of refinery products and crude oil inputs influence the complexity of the refining process used, with different expenditure needs and intensity of environmental and social impacts.
Oil & Gas - Services
Oil and gas services companies provide support services, manufacture equipment, or are contract drillers for oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) companies. The drilling and drilling-support segment comprises companies that drill for oil and natural gas on-shore and off-shore on a contract basis. Companies in this segment may also manufacture jack-up rigs, semisubmersible rigs, and drill ships. Companies in the oilfield services segment manufacture equipment that is used in the extraction, storage, and transportation of oil and natural gas. They also provide support services such as seismic surveying, equipment rental, well cementing, and well monitoring. These services are commonly provided on a contractual basis, and the customer will purchase or lease the materials and equipment from the service provider. Service companies may also provide personnel or subject matter expertise as part of their scope of service. The contractual relationship between oil and gas services companies and their customers plays a significant role in determining the material impacts of their sustainability performance. Besides the rates charged, companies compete on the basis of their operational and safety performance, technology and process offerings, and reputation.